Many philosophers accept that the major monotheistic religions affirm substance dualism of a Cartesian sort, for example that the soul is separate from the body. But modern science seems to have proved this false: the mind is simply the activity of the brain! Isn’t this then an embarrassing committment for these religions? Eleonore Stump, Robert J. Henle Professor of Philosophy at Saint Louis University, argues that a different story needs to be told. Is it in fact true that the monotheistic traditions unreservedly endorse Cartesian dualism? Drawing from the history of Christianity and particularly Thomas Aquinas, Eleonore Stump argues that Christianity in fact supports a non-cartesian dualism and materialism without reductionism.